Vol. 3 Issue 1 Jan.-Mar. 2012

Y.Y. Restianti and Shabbir H. Gheewala*

Abstract: A huge potential for biofuel in Indonesia will have the chance to play an important role in the energy mix since the energy supply is highly dependent on fossil fuels. Ethanol, one of the biofuels with a potential to be developed as an automobile fuel in Indonesia, is targeted to supply 5% of total gasoline consumption in 2006-2010. An analysis of environmental impact and cost from production and utilization of a 10% blend of cassava-based ethanol with gasoline, so called E10, was done using Life Cycle Assessment and Life Cycle Cost method, and compared with gasoline. The results obtained showed that E10 has the potential for reducing the global warming and abiotic depletion potentials when compared with gasoline. However, in terms of acidification and eutrophication potentials, E10 has higher impacts than gasoline. The price of E10 is lower than gasoline on a per liter basis; however when comparing the prices based on fuel economy, E10 is more expensive than gasoline. Including external costs in the calculations brings down the E10 price below gasoline.

Keywords: LCA, LCC, E10, bioethanol, cassava, Indonesia.

P. Garg

Abstract: India is a country with more than 1.2 billion people accounting for more than 17% of world’s population. It is the seventh largest country in the world with total land area of 3,287,263 sq kilometers. India measures 3214 km from north to south and 2993 km from east to west. It has a land frontier of 15,200 km and coastline of 7,517 km. India has 28 states and 7 union territories. It faces a formidable challenge in providing adequate energy supplies to users at a reasonable cost. It is anticipated that India’s nominal GDP will exceed US $ 2 trillion by March 2012. India’s nominal GDP crossed the US $ 1 trillion mark in 2007-2008 which means that the annual growth rate of nominal GDP during the period is stupendous 18 percent. Thus the energy challenge is of fundamental importance. In the last six decades, India’s energy use has increased 16 times and the installed electricity capacity by 84 times. In 2008, India’s energy use was the fifth highest in the world.
Nevertheless, India as a country suffers from significant energy poverty and pervasive electricity deficits. In recent years, India’s energy consumption has been increasing at a relatively fast rate due to population growth and economic development, even though the base rate may be somewhat low. With an economy projected to grow at 8-9% per annum, rapid urbanization and improving standards of living for millions of Indian households, the demand is likely to grow significantly. As per the estimates made in the Integrated Energy Policy Report of Planning Commission of India, 2006, if the country is to progress on the path of this sustained GDP growth rate during the next 25 years, it would imply quadrupling of its energy needs over 2003-04 levels with a six-fold increase in the requirement of electricity and a quadrupling in the requirement of crude oil. The supply challenge is of such magnitude that there are reasonable apprehensions that severe shortages may occur.

A.Y. Qasim, R. Usubamatov and Z.M. Zain

Abstract: This paper proposes the vane wind turbine, which uses more effectively the wind energy and depends only on the acting area of the vanes. The vane wind turbine is designed to increase the output of a wind turbine that uses kinetic energy of the wind. This design enables the wind force to close left side vanes and simultaneously opens the right side vanes to allow wind move freely (reduce negative torque). It can be used worldwide due to its high efficiency, simple construction, and simple. Test wind turbine model in wind tunnel to verifying the ability of performance design.

Keywords: wind turbine, vane, VAWT, energy.

W. Wang, R. Liu and M. Zhang*

Abstract: This paper aims at investigating the potential factors influencing the change of transport sector N2O emissions in China. First, the transport sector N2O emissions over the period 1985-2009 are calculated based on the presented method. Then the presented LMDI (logarithmic mean Divisia index) method is used to find the nature of the factors that influence the changes in transport sector N2O emissions. We find that: (1) Transport sector N2O emission increased from 557.09 Tt (Thousand tonnes) in 1985 to 4860.77 Tt in 2009, at an annual growth rate of 9.44%. And highways transport was the biggest N2O emitter both in 1985 and in 2009. (2) The economic activity effect and transportation modal shifting effect are found to be primarily responsible for driving transport sector N2O emissions growth over the study period. (3) The transportation intensity effect and emission coefficient effect are found to be the main drivers of the reduction of N2O emissions of transport sector in China.

Keywords: Transport sector; N2O emissions; LMDI.

D. Ibrahim* and M. Altunc

Abstract: Currently there are over 5,000 swimming pools in operation in North Cyprus. The paper briefly investigates the solar energy availability in North Cyprus, and proposes the use of solar electricity to operate the pumps used for circulating the water and cleaning swimming pools. The paper concludes that electrical energy can be saved if solar energy is used during the pool cleaning process.

Keywords: Photovoltaic panel, renewable energy pool pump, solar energy, swimming pool.

L.G. Anderson

Abstract: Many countries are using and considering the increased use of biodiesel blended fuels to slow their growth of fossil fuel use for transportation purposes. Before the use of these fuels increase, it is critical that we understand the effect of using biodiesel blends on vehicle emissions, so that we better understand what air quality impacts to expect. Many previous reviews of biodiesel effects on emissions have combined all of the emissions data available to find a single value for the effects of a biodiesel blend on pollutant emissions. This includes combining emissions data from both light-duty (LD) and heavy-duty (HD) diesel vehicles and engines, combining vehicle data from chassis dynamometer and on-road emissions testing, and combining data using different oil feedstocks for producing biodiesel fuels.
In this review, the effects of switching from petroleum diesel fuel to biodiesel blended fuels on relative vehicle emissions for LD and HD vehicles are determined separately. We will not include engine emissions data in this analysis. For HD vehicles, we will also separate results for on-road emissions testing from chassis dynamometer testing. For HD vehicles, hydrocarbon (HC) emissions were significantly lower for B20 and B100 fuels from dynamometer and for B20 fuels from on-road emissions testing. For LD vehicles, there was no significant effect on HC emissions for B5, B10, B20, B30, B50 or B100 fuels. Nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions for HD dynamometer data was significantly higher for both B20 and B100, but no significant difference was found for the HD on-road emissions data. The NOx emissions for the LD vehicles were significantly higher for B10, B20, B30, B50 and B100 blends. For carbon monoxide (CO) emissions there was no significant effect for B20 and a significant decrease for B100 based on HD dynamometer data, and a significant decrease for B20 based on HD on-road emissions data. LD dynamometer data found a significant decrease in CO emissions only for B20 blends. No significant effect was found for carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions for HD vehicles using B20 fuels based on dynamometer or on-road emissions data. For LD vehicles a significant decrease in CO2 emissions was found only for the B10 blend. Particulate matter (PM) emissions were significantly lower for B20 fuel in HD vehicles for both types of emissions tests. PM emissions decreased significantly for LD vehicles for B10, B20, B30 and B50 blends only. The HD dynamometer data showed a significant decrease in fuel economy for the B20 blend, but no significant effect was observed for either the HD on-road or LD dynamometer data. When the effects of a biodiesel blend on vehicle emissions in different categories
were not significantly different, the results were combined to assess the effect of biodiesel use on the broader class of vehicles.

Keywords: Renewable fuels, Biodiesel, Vehicle emissions, Regulated air pollutants, Hazardous air pollutants.