Abstract: This study undertakes a life cycle inventory analysis to identify the carbon hotspots in a vehicle-to-grid (V2G) system and its CO2 emissions advantage over a conventional counterpart equivalent. The V2G system comprises a residential house, a photovoltaic solar system, a battery electric vehicle and a charging system, whereas the conventional system includes a residential house, a gasoline vehicle and a petrol station. The system boundary of each component consists of its production, use and end-of-life stages, where data are available. The carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions are calculated by applying component and life cycle stage data collected from statistics and literature surveys to the Japanese life cycle inventory database. The emissions differ by the assumptions made; therefore, a sensitivity analysis is also conducted to understand the potential CO2 emissions variations. The results indicate that a 35%–42% CO2 reduction can be expected for a V2G system in comparison with the conventional system. The main contributors to CO2 emissions for both the V2G and the conventional system are the dwelling, residential house construction, vehicle cycle and fuel cycle stages. Hence, these stages should be included in the system boundary of the V2G system and it is important to select and design the appropriate components of these stages to assure the environmental merits of the V2G system in terms of life cycle CO2 reduction.
Keywords: Vehicle to grid, Carbon hotspots, Life cycle inventory analysis.
Amalia Prima Putri and Shabbir H. Gheewala*
Abstract: Kamani or Calophyllum inophyllum is a non-edible seed which has potential to be a feedstock for biodiesel. Kamani trees are mostly found around coastal areas and are also known as forest trees. Kamani seed can be a promising alternative feedstock due to its high oil yield, simple cultivation procedure and non-edible seeds whereas palm oil which is currently used as biodiesel feedstock has environmental concerns and it is also produced for food thus raising issues about food versus fuel. The analysis of the energy inputs and outputs from kamani biodiesel show that its production is efficient because energy from output is higher than the input. Kamani biodiesel can also be considered renewable because its renewability factor at 1.95 (kamani biodiesel only) and 4.43 (all products) are substantially higher than 1.
Keywords: kamani; biodiesel; net energy balance (NEB); renewability factor.
Verena Streitferdt* and Surapong Chirarattananon
Abstract: This paper provides a critical perspective on the internationally acclaimed Thai Energy Efficiency Revolving Fund. The International Energy Agency predicted that by 2035 savings from energy efficiency measures could reduce global energy demand by 20% from 2010 levels. Most notably in Asian developing and fast emerging economies, demand-side energy efficiency initiatives in the industry and building sector seem promising. However, so far the potential has not been realized, with upfront finance being one main barrier. Therefore the question of how the public sector could mobilize private sector investment becomes an important one. Literature reveals that public supported funds or credit lines could be one of the options to overcome this barrier. The Energy Efficiency Revolving Fund of Thailand has been chosen as a case study as it has been considered as an international best practice example. By taking sustainability rather than a programme perspective interesting lessons can be learned: That energy efficiency finance will lose out once renewable energy and energy efficiency finance are combined in one mechanism, that the mechanism actually leads to changes in lending patterns and that the Thai government needs to focus to provide legislation that will drive the demand for energy efficiency finance in the future.
Keywords: Revolving Fund, energy efficiency, emerging economies, energy efficiency finance, Thailand, public policies.
Branka Gvozdenac-Urošević and Dušan Gvozdenac*
Abstract: Some energy efficiency indicators for Thailand, OECD and EU 28 countries are analyzed in the period from 1990 to 2012. Both Thailand and mentioned regions have enacted and implemented energy policies which have many common elements and which are by all means devoted to the increase of energy efficiency and wider use of renewable energy sources for the purpose of reducing GHG emissions and to achieve sustainable development. However, the results of the implementation of these policies are very different and point out to the great influence of economic, social and political factors. Energy efficiency depends on numerous mutually independent factors but the greatest problem is in the fact that most important factors cannot be affected by individual countries. This leads to the need to constantly control the implementation of the energy efficiency policy and to make adjustments to it. Very often, these changes are imposed by rough effects of external factors which are the consequence of globalization and the pressure of those who enforce this globalization. This paper offers some answers to possible reasons for the deviation of values and trends of energy indicators in the most developed regions in relation to Thailand.
The complexity of every energy indicator is particularly emphasized, as well as the insufficiency of comparison of their numerical values without the analysis of other “uncounted” factors affecting their numerical values.
Keywords: energy policy; energy efficiency; energy indicators; energy consumption and production.
Agabu Shane*, Shabbir H. Gheewala and George Kasali
Abstract: Despite research work and implementation of biogas having started as early as in the 1980s, Zambia has lagged behind in the adoption and use of biogas in the sub-Saharan Africa. The study established that there is a theoretical biogaspotential of 76PJ per annum from animal manure and crop residues. This is sufficient to provide energy for cooking and lighting in more than 3 million households. Lack of funding, lack of policy, regulatory framework and strategies on biogas, unfavorable investor monetary policy, inadequate expertise, lack of awareness of the benefits of biogas technology among leaders, financial institutions and locals, resistance to change due cultural and traditions of the locals, high installation and maintenance costs of biogas digesters, inadequate research and development, improper management and lack of monitoring of installed digesters, complexity of the carbon market, lack of incentives and social equity are among the challenges that have derailed the adoption and sustainable implementation of domestic biogas production in Zambia. Unless these are addressed, it is unlikely that the biogas sector in Zambia will flourish.
Keywords: Biogas, Potential, Social, Technical, Economic, Challenges, Zambia.