Tanomlap Ratchawat, Siriluk Chiarakorn* Amnat Chidthaisong
Abstract:This paper studied greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of roasted and ground coffee production in Chumphon, Thailand. The scope of the study included robusta coffee cultivation and production of roasted and ground coffee. The data were collected by field surveys and questionnaires from the selected community enterprises in 2014. The functional unit of analysis was 1 kg of roasted coffee and 1 kg of ground coffee. The amount of GHG emissions in the unit of kgCO2e/kg coffee was calculated by following the guidelines of carbon footprint of the product provided from Thailand Greenhouse gas management organization (TGO) and the emission factors were referred from national life cycle inventory and IPCC databases. The results showed that the production of roasted coffee and ground coffee emitted 1.67 and 1.69 kgCO2e per 1 kg coffee, respectively. The largest GHG emission was contributed from fertilizer applications in coffee cultivation, which was approximately 75% of total GHG emissions. The appropriate GHG emission reductions are optimal fertilizer application and using highly efficient stove which can reduce approximately 43% of GHG emissions from coffee production.
Keywords: Greenhouse gas emissions, robusta coffee, roasted coffee, ground coffee, Thailand.
Titaphorn Supasri, Panich Intra and Sate Sampattagul*
Abstract: The goal of this study was to provide an assessment of life cycle greenhouse gas emissions and particulate matters emissions of maize by using a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). The focus study area is Chiang Dao district in Chiang Mai province. The system boundary (from cradle-to-farm gate) is starting from land preparation and continuing through cultivation and the harvesting process. The functional unit of this study was 1 kg of maize yields at farm gate. As for the results, the total greenhouse gas emissions from maize production in Chiang Dao district is equal to 9,621.397 tonnes CO2 eq while particulate matters emissions are equal to 85.877 tonnes PM10 eq. The single largest source of greenhouse emissions occurred during the field emission process at about 45.64%, The next largest is planting process contributed 23.60%, followed by open burning and fertilizer use processes contributed 16.68% and 13.30%, respectively. Particulate matters emissions were found during the process of cultivation at about 69% and in the open burning and harvesting processes at approximately 31% and 0.18%, respectively. This study can be used to lead the development of new guidelines and indicates opportunities for further improvement in the best practices of agriculture in the northern area of Thailand for the sustainable production and consumption of maize for the future.
Keywords: Maize, Life Cycle Assessment, Greenhouse gas, Particulate matters, Air pollution.
Wirawat Chaya, Boosya Bunnag and Shabbir H. Gheewala*
Abstract: Sustainable Livelihood Approach (SLA) was applied for a qualitative study on Livelihoods of farmers producing bioethanol feedstock in Thailand while and adopting and not adopting irrigation technologies. Results indicated that farmers adopting the water technologies had higher yield, profit and farm income. In addition, these farmers were able to reinforce social, physical, human and natural assets leading to improved livelihoods. Ability to access to the technologies was related to possession of livelihood assets, particularly cultivated land area. The investment in the technologies was proved to be cost effective. Relevant policies dealing with alternative energy should highlight the usefulness of the technologies and ways to access them by poor farmers in order to secure the planned amount of bioethanol feedstock.
Keywords: Sustainability, bioethanol, irrigation technology, livelihoods, farmers.
Witsanu Attavanich1, Rattanawan Mungkung, Itthipong Mahathanaseth, Santi Sanglestsawai and Athiwatr Jirajariyav
Abstract: There is no indicator measuring Thailand’s green growth by valuing the resource degradation and environmental damage costs. This article aims to estimate Thailand’s green gross domestic (GDP) that takes into account environmental damage costs with the detailed analysis on the agricultural sector using the Economic Input Output - Life Cycle Assessment (EIO-LCA) approach. The representative product in each sector was selected based on the available life cycle inventory data, economic values and their magnitude of impacts. Here we find that oil palm cultivation (Sector 011 in the economic input-output table), fibre crops (Sector 013), rice cultivation using chemicals (Sector 001), coffee-tea-cocao (Sector 015), and coconut growing (Sector 010), respectively, generated the highest environmental damage value. This study revealed that the total environmental damage costs of agricultural products was $22.05 million per year accounting for only 0.1003 percent of total GDP in agricultural sector while the total environmental damage cost from all sectors is equal to $36,950.79 million accounting for 14.58 of total GDP.
Keywords: Green GDP, EIO-LCA, Life Cycle Assessment, Economic Input Output, Agricultural Sector, Green Growth.