Chaiwat Ekkawatpanit, Duangrudee Kositgittiwong*, Wongnarin Kompor and Chutipat Foyhirun
Abstract: Energy conservation has been an important policy for the Thai government since the enforcement of the Energy Conservation Promotion Act in 1992. Recently, an economy in Thailand has been increasing. Due to this reason, the energy consumption in Thailand increased continuously at an annual average rate of 4.4%. Although there has been continuous discovery of oil and gas in Thailand, the domestic demand for energy still has been growing resulting in the shortage of energy. Alternative energy is, therefore, highly necessary. These make Thailand renewable energy potentials are at a very good opportunities to be promoted as energy sources and create the promising country energy security. From the previous researches, it was found that the highest wave height in the Gulf of Thailand (GoT) can be found in September with the height of 2.6 m. The average significant wave height is 0.9 m. However, there is still no existing ocean wave energy generator in Thailand whereas the neighboring countries are trying to use this kind of energy. Then, the aim of this study is to study the possibility of promoting wave energy in the coastal zone of Thailand.
Keywords: Wave energy, Gulf of Thailand, Andaman Sea, SWAN Model, Thailand.
Ali Hasanbeigi* and Aimee McKane
Abstract: Motor-driven equipment accounts for approximately 60% of manufacturing final electricity use worldwide. A major barrier to effective policymaking, and to more global acceptance of the energy efficiency potential in industrial motor systems, is the lack of a transparent methodology for quantifying the magnitude and cost-effectiveness of these energy savings. This paper presents the results of original analyses conducted for Thailand to begin to address this barrier. Using a combination of expert opinion and available data from Thailand as well as United States and the European Union, bottom-up energy efficiency cost curve models were constructed to estimate the cost-effective electricity efficiency potentials and CO2 emission reduction for three types of motor systems (compressed air, pumping, and fan) in industry in Thailand. Based on these analyses, the share of cost-effective electricity saving potential of these systems as compared to the total motor system energy use in the Thai industry in base year was 36% for pumping, 47% for compressed air, and 46% for fan systems. The total technical saving potential was 45% for pumping, 55% for compressed air, and 46% for fan systems for industrial motor systems in Thailand.
Keywords: Energy efficiency; Motors systems; Bottom-up model.
Ade Andini, Patrick Rousset, Udin Hasanudin and Sebastien Bonnet*
Abstract: Indonesia is a developing country which economy relies heavily on agricultural production. From such activities a large amount of crop residues are produced each year which could be of potential for energy purposes. Unfortunately, there is an increasing concern over the open burning of biomass resources in the country and notably crop residues that are left unused in the field. Such practices lead to air pollution, human health and economic impacts. This study aimed at investigating farming practices in Indonesia for major crops and estimating the proportion of crop residues unused and subject to open burning that could potentially be available as energy feedstock. One specific location in Indonesia was selected as representative case-study and a field survey using questionnaires conducted. It was found that 21% of Indonesia’s crop residues are subject to open burning. On an annual basis, this corresponds to about 45 million tonnes of residues, including, 19.3 million tonnes of rice straw, 18.5 million tonnes of cassava residues, 6.7 million tonnes of corn residues, and 0.4 million tonnes of sugarcane residues. The total energy potential such biomass could represent on a daily basis was estimated to amount to 1706 TJ.
Keywords: Crop residues, farming practices, open burning, energy feedstock, Indonesia.
Teamhy Sien, Penwadee Cheewaphongphan and Savitri Garivait*
Abstract: Cassava is one of the most important upland crops in Cambodia. Most of cassava production is used for human food, animal feed, industrial feedstock, and for export. This study aims to evaluate the land suitability for cassava plantation in Cambodia. The study has developed a methodology adapted from the FAO’s guidelines for selecting suitable cultivation areas. A suitability weights and scores were assigned to each physical soil parameters and climate data, followed AHP approach. In addition, land use-land cover map was accounted for this analysis to identify the present and potential land use. The land suitability then was grouped into four classes: highly suitable (S1), moderately suitable (S2), marginally suitable (S3), and not suitable (N).
The obtained results indicated that possible area for cassava plantation as a whole are: 9.64% under highly, 5.11% under moderately, 1.11% under marginally, and 0.65% under not suitable area, respectively. Also, it was found that more than 2 million hectares of land converted from forestland but currently unused are potentially available for cassava plantation with possible high productivity. The developed land suitability map for cassava plantation can serve as references for cassava production planning in Cambodia, as well as for evaluating the national potential for this food and energy crop supply.
Keywords: Cassava production; Land suitability; Suitability map; Cambodia.
Chanittar Cheephat, Pornlada Daorattanachai* and Navadol Laosiripojana
Abstract: The effect of Re addition onbimetallic Fe-Ni catalysts over g-Al2O3 support for catalytic partial oxidation of methane was investigated at temperature range 650-850°C. It was observed that the presence of Re promoter can promote catalytic activity of Fe-Ni/Al2O3 particularly at 850°C. This was due to the presence of Re can enhance Fe-Ni dispersion, according to TPD-H2 chemisorption measurement, which could efficiently reduce metal particle agglomeration and the growth of metal crystallites. Moreover, the effects of supports were also studied by comparing g-Al2O3 and high surface area Ce-ZrO2 supported Fe-Ni-Re catalysts. The Fe-Ni-Re/Ce-ZrO2 exhibited not only an excellent performance towards CH4 conversion (56.2%) and H2 yield (68.7%) but also remarkable stability. Its better catalytic performance was mainly reasoned by the redox reactions between the absorbed CH4 and the lattice oxygen on Ce-ZrO2 surface also took place. Moreover, the effects of steam addition on Fe-Ni-Re/Ce-ZrO2 performance were also carried out. With the presence of suitable H2O content can further promote H2 and CO yields as well as prevent the formation of carbon on the catalyst surface.
Skonrach Thongkumkoon, Pornlada Daorattanachai* and Navadol Laosiripojana
Abstract: This paper demonstrates the catalytic activities of trimetallic sulfided ReNiMo supported on g-Al2O3 toward the deoxygenation of refined palm olein (RPO). The bimetallic sulfided NiMo was also tested for comparison. From the results revealed that ReNiMo sulfide catalyst exhibited significantly higher yields of diesel-like hydrocarbons than NiMo sulfide catalysts. The different product distributions depended on reaction temperature and reaction time. At 350-370°C for 1-1.5 h under a H2 pressure of 40 bar, sulfided ReNiMo catalyst provided the diesel yield (C13-C18) of 75-78%. Based on BET surface area, SEM-EDS and H2-chemisorption techniques, we found that the additional of Re promoter can increase surface area, reduce metal particle size and improve metal dispersion. Moreover, the catalyst reusability was also tested in this work. We found that the sulfided ReNiMo/g-Al2O3 showed good reusability and maintained the diesel yield higher than 73% for at least six consecutive runs. In contrast with ReNiMo, NiMo sulfide catalyst was significantly deactivated due to high rate of carbon deposition according to TPO result. In addition, adding glycerol to use as a hydrogen donor in deoxygenation reaction was successful.
Keywords: Deoxygenation, Refined palm olein, Diesel-like hydrocarbon, Trimetallic sulfided ReNiMo.
Chutikan Inkrod, Marisa Raita* and Navadol Laosiripojana
Abstract: Among biomass-derived compounds, lignin is an underused component with potential for conversion to industrial-need products in biorefinery. In this study, organosolv fractionation of pararubber wood sawdust (PS) was studied using a ternary solvent mixture of methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK), ethanol, and water in the presence of H2SO4 as an acid promoter aiming to separate high-purity lignin fraction. The optimized conditions were at 160°C for 40 min with MIBK/ethanol/water proportion of 0.25/0.42/0.33 and 0.025 M of H2SO4, which led to the highest lignin removal efficiency of 70.6% (w/w) from PS. Physicochemical characteristics of the fractionated lignin were determined by Klason lignin, X-ray fluorescence (XRF), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). In addition, the lignin samples were then thermally depolymerized in MIBK to determine the content of specific lignin-derived chemicals. The main phenolic derivatives from PS-lignin were syringaldehyde, cis-isoeugenol and vanillin. This work demonstrates the potential of the fractionated lignin for production of valuable chemicals in biorefineries.
Keywords: Biomass; Organosolv fractionation; Lignin; Depolymerization.