Vol. 9 Issue 2 Apr.-Jun. 2018

Apisada Tandhapongse, Nakorn Worasuwannarak and Navadol Laosiripojana

Abstract: The 50:50 w/w blended of organosolv lignin from the fractionation of bagasse and eucalyptus was successfully converted into carbon fiber. The properties of isolated lignin samples were studied and analyzed by elemental analysis (CHNO), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic (FT-IR), Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (H-NMR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), gel permeation chromatography (GPC). The images of carbon fibers were observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The blended organosolv lignin could be melt spun at 140°C to form lignin fibers. The collected fibers had medium brittleness.  The fibers could stabilize at 250°C under air at rate 0.1°C per minute however, some of areas of the fibers were slightly fused. Then, the fibers were carbonized under nitrogen at 900°C. The received blended organosolv lignin based carbon fibers had carbon content at 82.84%. The carbon fibers had smooth surface with the diameter of 13-20 µm. The 50:50 w/w blended of organosolv lignin from bagasse fractionation and organosolv lignin from eucalyptus fractionation had average electrical resistivity of 3x10-2 Ωm which had a potential to be used as semiconductor material.


Keywords: Lignin fiber, Fractionation, Organosolv lignin, Melt spinning, Carbon fiber.

Sebastien Bonnet

Abstract: Thailand is a Non-Annex I country that ratified the Kyoto protocol in 2002. It produced its Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMA) in 2014 and committed at the conference of parties in Lima (COP20) to reduce its GHG emissions by 7-20% by 2020 based on 2005 level. At COP 21 in Paris, Thailand announced in its intended National Determined Contribution to reduce GHG emissions by 20% by 2030 and a maximum target of 25% as compared to the 2005 level with a particular emphasis on the energy sector, including transportation. In line with these climate change related targets, Thailand has produced a Climate Change Master Plan (2015 - 2050) providing a series of guidelines, measures and actions for climate change mitigation (and adaptation) in line with its INDC. The energy sector being a major contribution to GHG emissions, renewable energy has been strongly promoted along with energy efficiency as means to contribute to climate change mitigation and to alleviate dependency on imported fossil fuels. With regard to renewable energy, policy measures are detailed in the Alternative Energy Development Plan 2015-2036 (AEDP 2015) which provides targets covering electricity, thermal energy and biofuels (transport). Renewable energy is targeted to contribute 30% of final energy consumption in 2036 (131,000 ktoe). Achieving the AEDP 2015 targets would lead to reducing power-related GHG emissions by 20% compared to business-as-usual by 2030, and a maximum target of 25% as indicated in the INDC of Thailand.

Shabbir H. Gheewala*, Thapat Silalertruksa, Pariyapat Nilsalab, Naruetep Lecksiwilai, Wanchat Sawaengsak, Rattanawan Mungkung and Jirawat Ganasut

Abstract: When demands for water cannot be met sufficiently due to lack of available water, the excess demand will possibly cause impacts on freshwater resources. Thus, water footprint (WF) and water stress index (WSI) are gaining recognition as important tools for assessing water use impact leading to support policy makers on development of water resource management policy. The WSI has been widely applied as a characterization factor of water scarcity footprint; a first attempt was made some years ago by determining the WSI for 25 watersheds of Thailand based on a top-down approach. Subsequently, in this study, a bottom-up approach with more refined data was used to determine the annual and monthly WSIs for the 25 watersheds. The most critical watersheds were found to be located in the Central region of Thailand. Cultivating in irrigated or non-irrigated areas and shifting crop calendar can affect the WSI values. Accordingly, the annual and monthly WSI would be recommended as one of the criteria or tools to support the future agricultural policy decision making in various applications, particularly agricultural zoning. The annual WSI may be useful for the top-down vision for a quick assessment and the monthly WSI for a comprehensive assessment.

Pornlada Daorattanachai*, Sansanee Totong and Navadol Laosiripojana

Abstract: The purpose of this work was to investigate catalytic non-oxidative dehydrogenation of ethanol into acetaldehyde and hydrogen using monometallic Cu, Ag and bimetallic Cu-Ag catalysts supported on SiO2 at metal loading variations (2.5, 5, and 10 wt.%). The experimental results revealed that Cu catalysts with low Cu loading (2.5-5 wt.%) exhibited better activity than Ag catalysts in temperature range of 250-400°C. Moreover, we found that the addition of Cu considerably promoted the catalytic dehydrogenation activity of Ag/SiO2 catalysts. Among all prepared catalysts, the 10 wt.% Cu-Ag/SiO2 showed the best catalytic activity for non-oxidative dehydrogenation of ethanol with ethanol conversion of 53%, acetaldehyde yield of 42%, and hydrogen yield of 49% at 400°C.


Keywords: Dehydrogenation; Ethanol; Acetaldehyde; Hydrogen; Cu; Ag; Cu-Ag.