Nageen Farooq and Shabbir H. Gheewala*
Abstract: Due to population growth and economic development, the demand for the agricultural production is increasing rapidly leading to an accelerating pressure on the existing water resources. Sugarcane is an important cash crop of Pakistan; it is a water intensive crop and grown in the watershed of the Indus river. In this study, the impact of water use in terms of water deprivation has been estimated by using water stress index of the Indus watershed. The results revealed that a large amount of water ranging between 14,625 to 27,529 m3/ha has been used in the Faisalabad and Rahim Yar Khan regions of Pakistan. Due to yield gap in these regions, the per tonne water utilization for cane production was found to be higher than the global average of 197 m3/tonne thus contributing to a higher extent of water deprivation potential in the Indus watershed. The results of the study highlight the need to increase the water use efficiency for cane cultivation to reduce the water deprivation potential in Pakistan. Recommendations are made for increasing the irrigation water efficiency through on-farm water management techniques. The results of the study are helpful for the policy makers to suggest further improvements for sustainable cane production in Pakistan.
Keywords: Water stress, water derivation, sugarcane, Pakistan.
Promporn Reangchim, Pornlada Daorattanachai* and Navadol Laosiripojana
Abstract: Glycerol is waste from biodiesel production processes in which glycerol amounts to about 10 wt% of the total biodiesel produced. Currently, many researchers have attempted to develop the process for utilization of glycerol as a potential source of biochemicals, rather than as a waste. This research proposal aims to develop the conversion process to produce high-value chemical i.e. 1,2-propanediol (1,2-PDO) through catalytic hydrogenolysis reaction. The catalytic hydrogenolysis of glycerol was studied at several operating conditions with the presence of metal catalysts. 35%Cu/γ-Al2O3 was prepared and evaluated in this work. Liquid products were intensively analyzed to understand the influences of catalyst and operating parameters on the product characteristics. Moreover, the characterization of synthesized metallic catalysts were evaluated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), temperature-programmed reduction with hydrogen (H2-TPR), and N2 sorption to study the relationship between their catalytic activity and physical-chemical properties. 35%Cu/γ-Al2O3 with oven-drying method was the suitable catalyst for glycerol hydrogenolysis. It was observed that the reaction at 240°C for 5 hours under a hydrogen pressure of 50 bar with catalyst loading of 6wt% gave the maximum 1,2-PDO yield of 80.16% and selectivity of 85.44%.
Keywords: Glycerol; Hydrogenolysis; Catalyst; 1,2-Propanediol.
Pimpajee Sangsiri, Pornlada Daorattanachai*, Navadol Laosiripojana
Abstract: In this work, the fractionation of sugarcane bagasse into cellulosic material and lignin was studied with various operating temperatures in 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([Bmim]Cl) ionic liquid. It was observed that the dissolution temperature at 100°C for 22 h using [Bmim]Cl as solvent with bagasse loading of 5 wt.% gave the maximum regenerated cellulose 71%. Moreover, this temperature was sufficient to decrystallize the native structure of cellulose I to the low crystallinity of cellulose II, which was beneficial for subsequent hydrolysis step. The fractionation process at temperature lower than 100°C was not enough to dissolve bagasse whereas the process at higher temperature than 120°C generated higher amount of lignin in regenerated cellulosic material that led to the remaining structure of cellulose I in sample. Moreover, the ionic liquid was observed to be reusable. The reusability tests showed that lignin was a major impurity in recovered ionic liquid that affected on impurity of regenerated cellulosic material.
Keywords: Fractionation; Ionic liquid; 1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride.