Vol. 12 Issue 3 Jul.-Sep. 2021

Peerapol Chankasem, Kasemsan Manomaiphiboon*, Bikash Devkota, Hoang Thi Trang, Nitchanan Nantawong, Chakrit Chotamonsak and Agapol Junpen

Abstract: This study investigated a number of precipitation characteristics in Greater Bangkok (GBK) using hourly satellite‒derived GPM (Global Precipitation Measurement) precipitation data for a period of 2001‒2018 (as seasonal years). Long‒term land cover and meteorological data were used to support the assessment. GPM well captures seasonality, with two peaks in the early and late wet season. On a diurnal scale, summer precipitation tends to occur during the afternoon and evening, so does wet‒season precipitation with extension to the early morning hours. Spatial correlation analysis using the hourly data shows GBK as a homogeneous or coherent region of precipitation. Urban precipitation tends to be more intense and less distributed than its non‒urban counterpart, suggesting that urban surface and city activities possibly enhance convection. Summer precipitation shows strong directional dependence, consistent with the prevailing surface and upper winds. As for urbanization effects, it was examined using a set of Hovmoller diagrams and normalized precipitation in the urban and non‒urban areas between two epochs (2001‒2009 and 2010‒2018). March‒May was found to have relatively large changes in magnitude than those in the other months. During the summer, such changes tend to occur mostly in the afternoon and evening/nighttime. Given the scope of the current investigation, it is still not possible to conclude whether urbanization induces more or less precipitation for the study area.

Keywords: Satellite, precipitation, gauge, urbanization, convection.

Stephen Enyinnaya Eluwa, Nor Eeda Ali and Oluwaseun Kilanko

Abstract: The risk of global warming and emissions of greenhouse gases associated with energy production from fossil fuels have necessitated the need to embrace renewable energy resources. Nigeria is Africa’s largest crude oil producer and has tended to rely heavily on its fossil fuel for electricity generation over the years. In a bid to reduce over reliance on fossil fuel for electricity generation, the Federal Government initiated some projects aimed at harnessing the abundant renewable energy resources in the country. This paper reviews the current development on renewable energy sources and green technology adoption in Nigeria. Systematic review through hybrid approach was adopted. Out of the four renewable energy sources (wind, solar, hydro, biomass) that studies have shown as having great potential in the country, only two (hydro and solar) have been developed and commercialized for public use. Among the 36 states in Nigeria, Lagos, Delta and Sokoto are leading in renewable energy development and diffusion, based on reported number of projects sited in them. Some of the barriers to renewable energy and green technology adoption in the country include: high installation costs, substandard green technology products in the market, inadequate green skills and inconsistent government policy. The renewable energy and energy efficiency policy document of the country is robust, with detailed strategies on how to develop each renewable energy. However, there is a gap between the renewable energy policy document of Federal Government and actual implementation. The development and implementation of many renewable energy projects in the country are inconsistent with the provisions of National Energy Policy, which has led to sub-optimal performance or in some cases total abandonment of these projects.

Keywords: Renewable Energy, Green Technology, Adoption, Nigeria.

Glenn Baxter

Abstract: This study has examined Frankfurt Cargo Services (FCS), a major European-based air cargo terminal operator, energy management. The study period was from 2008 to 2019 and was based on an in-depth qualitative longitudinal research design. The company uses both direct non-renewable energy sources (diesel and gasoline), and indirect renewable energy sources (electricity and district heating). The company’s largest energy consumption is electricity, followed by district heating, diesel, and gasoline. Frankfurt Cargo Services annual purchased direct energy consumption oscillated over the study period, reflecting varying vehicle and ground service equipment (GSE) consumption patterns. The annual direct energy consumption per workload unit (WLU) generally showed a downward trend. Frankfurt Cargo Services (FCS) annual indirect renewable energy sources consumption also oscillated throughout the study period. Frankfurt Cargo Services (FCS) annual purchased indirect energy consumption per workload unit (WLU) generally displayed a downward trend the company’s annual electricity consumption fluctuated over the study period reflecting differing consumption patterns. The annual consumption of electricity per workload unit (WLU) also oscillated over the study period reflecting differing electricity requirements and air cargo tonnages handled. Frankfurt Cargo Services (FCS) annual district heating consumption was influenced by winter heating requirements, and thus, varied throughout the study period. The case study revealed that Frankfurt Cargo Services (FCS) use of direct non-renewable energy sources has displayed a general downward trend throughout the study period. In contrast, Frankfurt Cargo Services use of indirect renewable energy sources displayed a general upward trend throughout the study period, reflecting the greater use of renewable energy sources.

Keywords: Air cargo, cargo terminal operator, case study, energy, Frankfurt Cargo Services GmbH.