Vol. 14 Issue 1 Jan.-Mar. 2023

Annisa Primaningtyas and Shabbir H. Gheewala*

Abstract: Non-wood forest products are any commodities obtained from the forest without cutting down trees. The role of Non-Timber Forest Products (NTFPs) production in minimizing threats to forest sustainability has been investigated. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) can be used to measure the environmental performance and sustainability of the products. The objective of this study is to provide a narrative literature review of previous research on the LCA of NTFPs, such as chemicals, silk, honey, rubber, bamboo, and cork, and to compare them to their substitute products. The system boundary used in each product is varied, dominated by cradle to grave and cradle to gate. In addition, global warming is the most common environmental impact evaluated by all studies. Furthermore, acidification and eutrophication are commonly investigated in the production of chemical, silk, and cork products. Besides, eco-toxicity and human toxicity are considered in fiber and silk products.The results showed that in chemical products, such as volatile oil, bioactive compounds, tannins, and phenolics obtained from resin or bark on trees, the extraction phase tends to have the largest environmental impact caused by the solvent used. The manufacturing process is the main contributor to the environmental impact of silk, honey, rubber, and cork products, mainly in the raw material production and harvesting process. Furthermore, these products require electricity to operate process equipment that produces the most significant environmental impact. Energy consumption in bamboo processing and product transportation tends to have large environmental impacts for bamboo products. Moreover, the LCA results also considered other environmental impacts to determine the hotspots and overall environmental profile of the production systems. The comparisons to their substitute products are presented and briefly discussed.

Keywords: Life cycle assessment (LCA), environmental impact, non-timber forest products (NTFPs).

Alongkorn Kanyatrakul, Arnon Settsoongnern, Amnat Chidthaisong, Pariwate Varnakovida, Tiwa Pakoktom and Monthira Yuttitham

Abstract: Climate change induced by emissions of greenhouse gases from sources associated with human activities has caused devastating impacts and is regarded as one of the most challenging threats to humankind. Quantifying the amounts of greenhouse gas emissions is an important first step towards mitigation. This study aimed to estimate the emissions of methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) from one of the most important emission sources in Thailand, which is rice cultivation, by using the eddy covariance technique. It was found that the average CH4 emission throughout the year was 0.06 mg CH4/m2. The annual emission of approximately 1.37 kg CH4/ha/d was estimated. This was comparable to that provided by the IPCC for the baseline emission (i.e., 1.3 kg CH4/ha/d). On the other hand, results reveal that the rice field acted as a net carbon sink, with an annual CO2 uptake of -72.60 mg CO2/m2/y, equivalent to 8.41 tons C/ha/y. During the growing season, an amount of CO2 uptake of -52.30 mg CO2/m2, equivalent to 5.89 tons C/ha/y was estimated. The calculated emissions during the fallow season were approximately 2.57 tons C/ha/y. We observed no significant relationship between CH4 emissions and CO2 fluxes. 

Keywords: Eddy covariance, Methane flux (CH4), Carbon dioxide flux (CO2), Rain-fed rice field.

Orumo B. Kenoll* and Agedah Ebisomu

Abstract: The Nigerian National Energy Policy for 2015-2030 was recently ratified by the National Assembly. The Policy emphasizes the role of renewable energy as a viable option for meeting energy needs in an environmentally friendly manner. The environmental concerns associated with greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the use of fossil fuels for electricity generation have been one of the reasons why the Nigerian government has adopted other means to limit the use of fossil fuels. The Nigerian government has now committed, under a political mandate, that by 2030, the country should generate 30% of its electricity from clean energy sources such as wind, solar, hydro, and nuclear. Also, the current electricity supplies from the available energy sources in the country are inadequate. The generation sub-sector currently consists of 23 operational grid-connected generating plants with a total installed capacity of 10,396 MW; this capacity has been to increase to 14,000 MW in 2023 (but only 6,056 MW available). Thermal-based generation has an installed capacity of 8,457.6 MW (4,996 MW available), while hydropower has 1,938.4 MW. But most of the time, it can only send out about 4,000 MW, which is not enough for a nation with over 200 million people compared to South Africa, Egypt, and Algeria with higher generation capacity and less population. This study shows that the fulfillment of such a requirement is possible only if nuclear power plants are built in the country to generate electricity. Nuclear energy is clean and of low carbon. It is reliable and stable, and the waste, which is a major concern around the world, can be managed to international standards. Nuclear energy, by reliably providing electricity 24 hours a day, is an important part of the energy mix needed to meet electricity demand. And since there are no carbon emissions, it will remain an important source of clean energy in the future. The future energy portfolio of the Country should involve all available clean energy options, medium, and peak load renewables but well supported by nuclear base load.


Keywords: Nigerian National Energy Policy, Electricity Generation, Renewable Energy, Environmental Concern, Greenhouse Gas, Nuclear Energy.

Hüseyin Şalvarlı

Abstract: Sustainable development is a means of achieving balanced growth and development in terms of environmental, economic, and social aspects. The importance of energy efficiency and enabling technologies cannot be overstated. Progress in these fields requires the implementation of various policies, legal regulations and incentive mechanisms with the cooperation of both the public and private sectors. For many nations, high imports of energy resources affect economic stability due to foreign dependence on energy. Ensuring more effective use of domestic resources is therefore vital to enhance national energy security and mitigate risks associated with foreign reliance. Energy policies are to be designed to enhance energy supply security and diversify access to energy resources. The energy sector is also a major contributor to global greenhouse gas emissions, and many energy plans have failed to meet mandatory carbon reduction targets. Addressing climate change is imperative given its potential to disrupt energy supply systems and exacerbate environmental impacts globally. Revising climate-related policies and promoting investments towards the development of energy efficient and clean energy technologies is therefore imperative for nations to meet their intended carbon reduction targets and contribute to climate change mitigation and sustainable development. It should also stimulate economic growth and job creation, particularly in the green economy. These initiatives should play an important role in enabling to reduce energy poverty and increase social welfare, particularly in rural areas, through the access to clean and affordable energy sources.

Keywords: Energy efficiency, enabling technologies, clean energy, sustainable development, climate changes.